Implications of Abandoning Abortion

On February 27, 2018, Vice President Pence predicted that abortion could become illegal within “our time.” While attending a luncheon hosted by the Susan B. Anthony List & Life Institute, an anti-abortion institute, Pence hypothesized:“[i]f all of us do all we can, we can once again, in our time, restore the sanctity of life to the center of American law.”

Given the controversial nature of abortion in the United States, Pence’s comment normally would not amount to any concern over the legality of abortion. However, speculations of such policies, specifically the Supreme Court overturning Roe v. Wade, have been circulating since the 2016 campaign. During the 2016 campaign, then-candidate Donald Trump was asked if there should be a punishment for women who chose to have abortions, he responded, “there has to be some form of punishment… there has to be some form.” More recently, these concerns of abandoning Roe arose during Justice Gorsuch’s nomination. Although now-Justice Gorsuch said he would “have walked out the door” if President Trump had asked him to overturn Roe, Vice President Pence’s comment is a reminder that in the current political state anti-abortion legislation may become an inevitable reality.

In Roe, the landmark case in abortion rights, the Supreme Court held that a woman has the right to have an abortion. Although Roe and its subsequent case law have placed restrictions on when and how a woman can get an abortion, today, the choice still remains with the woman to decide if she wants an abortion. Roe and the legalization of abortion were important for more than just the right to choose. The legalization of abortion also allows states to regulate the safety of abortion procedures themselves so long as they do not impose an undue burden, or substantial obstacle, on a woman trying to get an abortion.

Keeping abortion legal keeps abortion safe. States have legitimate interests in the health and safety of pregnant women, as well as the potential life of the unborn child, and thus are able to regulate abortion procedures. Between the criminalization of abortion and Roe, it is estimated that up to 1.2 million illegal abortions were performed per year in the United States. During this period, women with means had several options for an illegal abortion: leave the country and have a medical abortion abroad, or find a physician willing to perform an abortion. And even in these cases, safety was not guaranteed. Both options were expensive and largely inaccessible to women without means. Women who could not afford to pay off a doctor or leave the country resorted to back-alley procedures and home remedies, such as inserting knitting needles and coat hangers into their vaginas. These methods often resulted in serious injury, infection, and death.

Due to medical advances, abortions have become significantly safer since its inception thousands of years ago. In fact, Justice Ginsburg discussed how safe abortion now is in her concurrence in Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt. Today, states may impose reasonable standards on facilities that perform abortions to protect the safety and wellbeing of the patients. Medical abortions performed in hospitals and clinics have a 0.5% incidence of major complications. Moreover, in 2013, out of the nearly one million abortions performed, only four women died of complications arising from abortion.

Although mortality and incidence of injury related to abortion has decreased in the U.S., globally, between 4.7% and 13.2% of maternal deaths can still be contributed to “unsafe abortion.” The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortion as “when a pregnancy is terminated either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both.” The WHO cites the legality and availability of abortion as two of the major barriers for women to obtain a safe abortion.

If Vice President Pence is correct, and abortion becomes illegal within “our time,” the need for abortions will not cease, the ability to obtain an abortion will not end, and the number of abortions performed per year will not be zero. What will change is the access to safe abortions. “The abortions will continue regardless of whether it’s legal or not legal – as it always has.”

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