Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns. In 2013, there were more than 450,000 premature births, which are live births at less than 37 full weeks. An annual March of Dimes report card released this November, indicating that the percentage of premature births decreased to 11.4 percent in 2013, which is the lowest level in 17 years. Officials state that the health law’s expansion of Medicaid for adults earning up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level has been a major influence on the decline. Women’s health advocates speculate that other health law provisions are likely to cause further reductions in preterm births. Until now, 27 states and the District of Columbia have expanded their state Medicaid programs to adults as allowed under the health law.
The report measures states’ preterm birth rates with the March of Dimes’ goal of 9.6 percent and assigns letter grades. The United States’ earned a “C” grade with an 11.4 percent rate, improving from the previous year. The report also follows states’ progress in executing tactics to reduce risks of preterm birth. For example, the report noted that 30 states and the District of Columbia decreased the percentage of women of childbearing age who were uninsured in 2013. Further, the percentage of women who smoke, including “women ages 18-44 who currently smoke either every day or some days and have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in her lifetime,” fell in 34 states, the District of Colombia, and Puerto Rico. The late preterm birth rate, which constitutes babies born between thirty 34 and 36 weeks, also decreased in 30 states and Puerto Rico.
In terms of Medicaid’s expansion in this area, pregnant women who qualify under their state’s income eligibility standards can receive Medicaid services until 60 days after they deliver their baby. States’ income eligibility standards are generally around 200 percent of the federal poverty level, or $23,340. Medicaid also offers more reliable coverage to help guarantee that women are healthy prior to becoming pregnant and that they receive early prenatal care. Further, newborn and maternity care is now required under coverage in plans sold in the individual and small group markets. These plans require that a range of preventive services, including folic acid supplements, smoking cessation counseling, screening for gestational diabetes, and prenatal care, are provided free of charge to pregnant women.
Although there is no direct, causal link between Medicaid expansion and the decrease of preterm births, it is reasonable to believe that the expansion has had an influential impact on the rate of preterm births. As noted above, the percentage of uninsured women decreased along with the percentage of preterm births. By including more categories of beneficiaries under the eligibility provision of Medicaid, more pregnant women are receiving the opportunity for coverage, which in turn is improving the quality of their health and their babies’ health. Better access to health insurance helps a woman plan her pregnancies, and better access to preventive care aids her in ensuring that she is healthy. Health law advocates and experts recognize that expansion of private and public health insurance coverage for millions of women will probably be the largest contributing factor in reducing preterm births.